Water Mist System
Fire Protection


Water Mist

A system overview is detailed in
NFPA 750, a standard touching on
unique specifications that separate it
from a traditional sprinkler system

Within the last few years, the water mist system has gained recognition for its effectiveness, particularly while suppressing fires within confined or delicate spaces. A typical misting system produces small water droplets that vary in size between 10 – 1,000 microns. NFPA 750 expands on these characteristics.

NFPA 750


This standard protects life and property from fire through the standardization of design, installation, maintenance, and testing requirements for water mist fire suppression systems. NFPA 750 outlines three separate pressure classifications for the water mist system: low-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and high-pressure pumps. As pressure increases, droplet size decreases. These smaller droplets more efficiently protect the area with less damage to property.

Low-Pressure Systems 


< 175 PSI / < 12.1 BAR


< 1,000 Microns


Intermediate-Pressure Systems 


175 – 500 PSI / 12.1 – 34.5 BAR


300 – 500 Microns


High-Pressure Systems


> 500 PSI / > 34.5 BAR


10 – 100 Microns

Droplet Atomization with a Water Mist System

We Have Good Chemistry

The science of droplet utilization and
why NFPA 18A Encapsulator Technology
can improve the fire suppression
capabilities of a water mist system

This approach uses small droplets and a cooling effect to combat fires with less water.

Water Droplet


212°F / 100°C


Steam Conversion

Although more effective than water droplets produced by a traditional sprinkler system, water mist droplets are significantly less efficient at cooling than F-500 EA droplets. Water converts thermal energy to scalding steam as just a portion of the droplet is utilized for heat reduction.

F-500 EA Droplet


248°F / 120°C


Thermal Conveyance

F-500 EA droplets are fantastic conductors of heat with a higher boiling point than that of water. This creates a thermal circuit capable of absorbing thermal energy up to 10x faster than water droplets. The entire F-500 EA droplet is utilized during this process without generating scalding steam.

Despite their differences, water mist
and F-500 EA solution share many desirable traits

  1. F-500 EA is fluorine-free, biodegradable, and non-corrosive.
  2. F-500 EA possesses impressive surface tension reduction capabilities.
  3. F-500 EA considerably reduces the water needed to extinguish a fire.

Additionally, the F-500 EA solution
provides several benefits that water mist alone cannot

  1. F-500 EA encapsulates both liquid and vapor phase fuel.
  2. F-500 EA’s rapid heat absorption results in stable burn back resistance.
  3. F-500 EA drastically reduces the concentration of toxins in smoke.
Prioritizing Safety with a Water Mist System

Lithium Ion Batteries

A fixed system utilizing F-500 EA
concentrate as a water additive can
rapidly mitigate lithium-ion battery hazard
flammability, explosivity, and toxicity

Water mist systems have proven to be suitable for effectively extinguishing fires that require more finesse, such as those involving high-value assets. They began gaining traction close to twenty years ago in the maritime industry for the protection of vessels big and small. Today, they’re making waves in several markets. Most notably, extinguishing lithium-ion battery pack fires within energy storage systems, data centers, machinery spaces, and more.

The hazards associated with lithium-ion battery fires are varied and extend far beyond flammability. When you utilize F-500 EA as a water additive, your hazard mitigation capabilities will expand that much further. A 3% F-500 EA solution mitigates lithium-ion battery fires on three distinct levels: flammability, explosivity, and toxicity.


F-500 EA encapsulates flammable corrosive electrolytes and absorbs thermal energy up to 10x faster than water to successfully halt thermal runaway propagation.


F-500 EA ceases the production of explosive off-gases, such as hydrogen, methane, and ethylene to prevent an explosion from occurring.


F-500 EA reduces the concentration of toxic off-gases, including hydrogen fluoride, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide to protect human life.

Third-party Testing

After more than fifteen years of
third-party testing, F-500 EA continues to
improve the extinguishment capabilities
of water mist

A study performed by the State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology and Beijing Institute of Technology in 2022 sheds light on the advantages of proportioning F-500 EA concentrates into a water mist system for lithium-ion battery hazard protection.

Numerous factors were investigated through these experiments, including the heat reduction capabilities of water mist nozzles flowing a 3% F-500 EA solution and their ability to extinguish fires in battery modules as well as reduce the concentration of explosive off-gases released by burning lithium-ion batteries compared to a system without any additives.

“The cooling capacity of the 3% F-500 EA solution is up to three times that of water mist. Lower surface tension enhances the permeability of droplets for entering the gaps in the battery module, which accelerates the endothermic reaction of water. The 3% F-500 EA solution reduces the hydrogen concentration when the battery module experiences thermal runaway. The F-500 EA molecule absorbs hydrogen through its non-polar side. In contrast, the concentration of hydrogen gas first increases and then decreases when water mist is applied. Stopping thermal runaway propagation is conducive to rapidly extinguishing lithium-ion battery fires. The cooling effect plays the most significant role in extinguishing battery module fires and preventing thermal runaway propagation within the battery module.”

Similarly, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)’s Comparison of Fire Suppression Techniques on Lithium Ion Battery Pack Fires utilizes a water mist suppression system with F-500 EA as a water additive.

“A detailed experimental study has been conducted at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Mining Research Division to investigate the effectiveness of different fire suppression systems on lithium-ion battery pack fire extinguishment. Water mist suppression with F-500 extinguishing agent additive can better suppress the fire.”

Prioritizing Fire Protection

Without adequate fire protection,
your facility could potentially suffer a
number of consequences in addition to
a loss of life and property damage

1. Fines from a local governing body.
2. Higher insurance premiums, penalties and refused coverage.
3. A significant loss of revenue during the period of re-building.
4. An irreparable reputation.

The Diamond Doser is a water-driven proportioner specifically designed to dose F-500 EA concentrate directly into your fire sprinkler system’s water stream. While incipient fires involving more organic materials used to take several minutes to become fully involved, the fires industrial facilities face today contain toxic, explosive, and flammable liquids and vapors that can cause blazes to spread rapidly. When every second counts, water is not enough.


An engineered system designed to work hand in hand with NFPA 18A recognized Encapsulator Technology, allowing for:

1. Class A Fire Protection
2. Class B Fire Protection (Polar/Non-polar/Three-dimensional)
3. Energized Environment Fire Protection
4. Class D Fire Protection
5. Lithium Ion Battery Fire Protection


An uninterrupted system as long as water and concentrate are available. If the tank is depleted, the concentrate can flow continually from a separate drum or tote.


A system that is always predictable, producing a solution with a consistent ratio that doesn’t fluctuate if additional sprinkler heads open at your facility.


Installation, operation, and maintenance are simple. The system is driven by water flow alone with no need for constant calibration or pressure balancing.


A flexible system with a wide pressure range of 2-12 or 2-16 bars that automatically corrects admixture accordingly. Testing is convenient, producing no agent waste.


Instant savings on system installation as well as retaining thousands over time through effective fire suppression and economical annual NFPA-mandated testing.


Avoid unexpected system discharges, contamination, and disposal costs with a reliable system that utilizes fluorine-free, biodegradable, and noncorrosive Encapsulator Technology.

Using a Diamond Doser with a Water Mist System

We’re Here To Help

Prioritize safety with an innovative
water-driven proportioner capable of
pumping eco-friendly F-500 EA directly
into your water stream

Are you ready to invest in superior fire suppression with F-500 EA? We can help you implement a proactive approach that budgets for invaluable fire protection. Take the first step and contact our team of Encapsulator Technology Specialists to set up a free consultation.




+1 770 719 5112